Data Analyst Interview Questions and Answers 2024

Data Analyst Interview Questions and Answers 2024


Most Commonly Asked Data Analyst Interview Questions 2024

If you are headstrong enough to choose Data Analyst as your career, then you need to have expertise in Languages like Python and R Programming. You have to learn databases like MySQL, Cassandra, Elasticsearch, and MongoDB.

These databases cater to your structured and unstructured format of data needs in data analytics. You have to show your expertise in the usage of various Business Intelligence tools like Tableau, Power BI, Qlik View & Dundas BI.

You need to have the following technical skills to ace as a Data Analyst:

- Basic Mathematics & Statistics

- Programming Skills

- Domain Knowledge

- Data Understanding

- ELT Tool Knowledge

- Power Query for Power BI

- Efficiency in Exploratory data analysis.

- Identification of both structured and unstructured data.

Putting simply, a Data Analyst has to analyze data creatively then, only the transition from data analytics to Data Scientist will be easy. As a Data Analyst, your career prospect can grow as a Market Research Analyst, Actuary, Business Intelligence Developer, Machine Learning Analyst, Web Analyst, Fraud Analyst, and on and forth. 

To dive into a career of a data analyst's profile, preparing beforehand with the set of data analyst interview questions works wonders. We have listed the top data analyst interview questions, to how to prepare for the interview rounds.

Let us cover the set of data analytics interview questions, enough to get a smart idea of the type of the questions in this article.

Introductory Data Analyst Interview Questions

Redeem your career in data analytics with these top data analyst interview questions for fresher’s or potential data analysts.


Explain how are you fit for this role in this particular organization?

You must know that data needs change from company to company, and to hit the ground running and give the best answer that demonstrates your worth for this role and organization, you should start with your core competencies.

"I believe I am a highly effective Data Analyst who possesses several core competencies & traits that helps me to produce consistent results for my employer."

I can assess each data analysis task from a strategic perspective. With a high level of numerical and mathematical ability, I have an exploratory & statistical-driven approach to all analysis tasks. I also possess strong communication & interpersonal skills, which means I can fit quickly & seamlessly into any team or department.

Finally, I have a passion for accuracy & reflect attention to detail in my work. If you hire me for the data analytics role, I will maintain high quality in my job that will meet the organization's goals.


What are the quintessential skills required to perform a job in data analysis?

While there are numerous critical skills, a data analyst must possess to be effective; there are nine that I would deem to be quintessential. These are an investigative & curious approach to all work you carry out.

- An ideal data analyst must unearth the pattern & meaning behind the numbers in the datasets.

- To have a strategic approach to understanding and implementing the right analysis techniques to achieve the employer's objectives.

- Possess Problem-solving skills with a high degree of a mathematical, methodical, and logical approach to work.

- Be strict with deadlines and hold strong interpersonal skills to communicate the interpretation in a non-technical manner.

Core Technical Data Analyst Interview Questions

Below are the general core technical data analyst interview questions and answers:


Differentiate between Data Analysis & Data Mining?

Data Mining is a convergence of disciplines that involves database technology, statistics, visualization, information science, and machine learning. We create probability distributions by devising descriptive statistical methods & inferential statistics to get estimation, hypothesis testing, model scoring, Markov Chain & generalized model classes.

It has a vast structured database from which the data scientists and data analyst defines the data patterns and trends.

While data analytics involves the examination of the datasets to draw inferences from them, with the test hypothesis, we make data-driven decisions.

Data Analytics usage involves Artificial & Business Intelligence models comparing the small, medium, and large databases with SQL and NoSQL data. The output direction is to have actionable insights and verify or reject the hypothesis.


Illustrate Data Validation?

When there is a conflict in responses, we use Data Validation methods to identify inaccuracies. We can use the Holdout Strategy & K-Fold strategy to get Data Validation in Machine Learning.

It is also known as input validation which ensures uncompromised data transmission to programs to avoid code injection. The types of Data Validation used by data analysts include:

- Constraint Validation

- Structured Validation

- Data Range Validation

- Code Validation, and

- Data type Validation

These data validation routines and rules test the correctness and security of the incoming data.


How can you ascertain a sound functional data model?

To assess the soundness of a data model, we should start with correctness in predictability. A good data model does not fluctuate or disrupt by minor or significant alterations in the data pipeline.

The data model should be adaptable to scalability refraining from dysfunctional ties. The model must be presentable and comprehensible to a data analyst and its stakeholders.


How does an Analyst strategize on account of missing data?

The process of detecting the suspected or missing data starts with the application of methods like Model-based or deletion methods. Then, the analyst creates a validation report out of it and includes every detail of the missing data in the report. Validation reports direct whether or not the incoming data is compromised or unsafe to transmit into the program.

Further, the Data Analyst scrutinizes the process to avoid code injection. He makes sure that the data induced now is ready to replace the invalid data or inculcate it with a proper validation code.


What is an Outlier?

Statistics define it as a data point that possesses significant variation for the rest of the observation. For a Data Analyst, the presence of an Outlier indicates measurement error. These errors are divergent from the rest of the sample. We can divide it into the following types:

Point Anomalies: Point Anomalies or Global outliers are extensively divergent and fall outside the dataset.

Conditional-Outlier: Mostly found in time series data, this data point deviates from its sample and remains in the dataset as seasonal patterns.

Collective-Outlier: You detect collective outliers when the individual data points form a subset of the whole dataset and then get deviated.


Is retraining a model dependent on the data?

Now the competitive world, business runs 24*7*365. We cannot make the mistake of having a redundant system. We need our system built in a way that is adaptable to every major or minor alteration within a fraction of milliseconds. The model has to be fast-paced to retain the burden of the business.

Businesses invoke changes and many times are the reason for a trend or change. Hence, retraining the model is recommended to closely work with the changing paradigm of the business and adapt to uncertainties and forecasted courses.


Illustrate some problems occurring while analyzing data?

Many problems occur when you perform the data analysis. If the source of data is poor, then cleaning the data will involve ample time. The data can also be in different formats but will face representation problems when combining the data resulting in excessive delay. If the data is missing or incomplete, then data analysis becomes quite problematic. Data Analysts also face problems such as spelling mistakes, duplication, and suspected data while data analysis.


Ellucidate A/B testing?

A/B Testing directs end-users to ads, welcome emails, and web pages. It segments the results based on control & variance. This hypothesis works best for website optimization by gathering website performance data and revealing different versions of the webpage to the visitor.


How will you differentiate Bias from Variance?

We can define data bias as a type of error that has a heavily weighted dataset. There are many forms of bias like; missing data, corrupted data, data selection, data conformation, and algorithmic interpretation.

The types include sample bias, exclusion, measurement, recall & racial, observer, and association biases. Troubleshooting data bias in machine learning projects starts with determining its presence which helps to take necessary action for remedy.

Variance or over-fitting is the type of error that occurs due to the fluctuations in the dataset. While the relationship between bias and variance in most of the cases is to minimize at least one of the two errors here. Regularization helps to limit variance and reduce its optimal capacity.


Differentiate between data profiling and data mining?

Data mining helps to identify patterns by correlating with the large datasets, the purpose of data mining defines the data patterns and trends. It has a vast structured database from where the data scientists analyze the data.

Data Analysis involves the examination of the datasets to draw inferences from it with the test hypothesis we make data-driven decisions. Data profiling is the exploratory activity of data analysis from an internal or existing dataset to determine structure, content, and quality.

They can be raw or informative summaries that help to recognize and use the metadata. The data analyst mainly tries to create a knowledge base of qualitative and accurate information on the datasets.


State some of the significant hypothesis testings?

Before we test, we create our hypothesis and identify the test statistic & probability by specifying the significance level. Then we state the decision rule and collect the data from the distribution to make statistical or data-driven decisions.

Hypothesis testing in R Language.

There are two types of error occurrences in Hypothesis testing in the R language. The type I error is an alternative hypothesis with a designated standard deviation. The type II error is a Null Hypothesis with designated SD.

The threshold value serves as a metric in Hypothesis testing in R Language. When the value of Type-I error is less then we reject the alternative hypothesis. And if the value goes beyond the threshold value then we accept the alternative hypothesis.


It is used to compare two samples to determine their origin & variance. A big T-value reveals that the sample is from different groups. But a small T-value represents samples belonging to similar groups. The purpose of the independent t-test is to identify the difference between the two means.

T= variance between groups/ variance within groups.


Analysis of Variance tests, one independent variable with two or more means. It works on testing the difference between the means of the two groups on a single variable.

Data Analyst Interview Questions Based On SAS & SQL

SAS or Statistical Analysis System is a command-driven independent statistical software suite by SAS institute. It is used for Artificial Business Intelligence, fraud investigation & predictive analysis. SAS extracts data and categorizes it to identify and analyze patterns in it.

It has an edge over BI tools by programmatically transforming the raw data and using a drag & drop interface to analyze the data. The SAS suite can reduce the burden on companies by doing analysis with the help of a single Data Analyst. It can even make predictions of an outcome with missing data.

This software suite also reduces the work of a Data Analyst by performing multiple tasks with a click. Though it has its alternatives like Python, R Language, Excel, Hive, Apache Spark & Pig; the GUI it provides is commendable for the commercial analytics market.

Let us discuss below general data analyst interview questions based on SAS & SQL:


Define Interleaving the SAS?

Interleaving in SAS is a method to vertically combine SAS datasets. When we append or concatenate datasets, the observations from each individual dataset remain grouped together in the same order in the combined dataset.

If you want observations in the combined dataset to mix together based on the values of one or more common variables then you can do this with a process known as interleaving the dataset.


What are the SAS programming practices for processing large datasets? How to do a "Table LookUp" in SAS?

Some of the best SAS programming practices are as follows:

1) Sampling Method using Subsetting.

2) Commenting on the lines

3) Using Data Null

There are many ways to do a "Table Lookup" in SAS and they are as follows:


- Arrays

- Format Tables

- Direct Access

- Match merging


How to control the number of observations?

We can control the number of observations or variables with the help of the FIRSTOBS & OBS option.


How SAS is self-documenting?

SAS creates & stores information about the dataset during the compilation.


Tableau Data Analyst Interview Questions

Here are the common data analyst interview questions and answers based on Tableau:


What are measures and dimensions?

Dimensions affect the level of detail in the view. Whereas, measures contain numeric, quantitative values that you can measure.


What is a hierarchy?

A hierarchy in Tableau is a collection of related columns, where entities are presented at various levels of detail and organization. Tableau creates hierarchies by presenting one dimension as a level under the principle dimension.


How do you create a calculated field in Tableau?

The process to create a calculated field in Tableau includes:

- Click the drop-down to the right of Dimensions on the Data pane.

- Select “Create > Calculated Field” to open the calculation editor.

- Now, name the new field and create a formula.


Differentiate between a heatmap and a treemap.

Tabulated below are the major differences:



A heat map compares the categories with color and size.

A treemap is a powerful visualization for a large amount of highly structured data with a tree-structured diagram.

Heatmaps compare two different measures together.

Treemaps are utilized for illustrating hierarchical data and optimizing the use of space.


Excel Data Analyst Interview Questions

Here are the generic excel interview questions for data analysts:


What is the use of a Pivot table?

Pivot tables in Excel are a table of grouped values to analyze, summarise, and aggregate datasets to obtain a desired report. The table includes sums, averages, or other statistics groups together using the already selected aggregation function applied to the grouped values.


What is the difference between COUNT, COUNTA, COUNTBLANK, and COUNTIF in Excel?

The major differences are:

- COUNT function returns the count of numeric cells in a range.

- COUNTA function counts the non-blank cells in a range.

- COUNTBLANK function gives the count of blank cells in a range.           

- COUNTIF function returns the count of values by checking a given condition.


What is Conditional Formatting?

Conditional formatting changes the cells appear in a range depending on specified conditions. The conditions are rules based on matching text or specified numerical values.

How do you make a dropdown list in MS Excel?

The methods include:

- COUNT function returns the count of numeric cells in a range.

- COUNTA function counts the non-blank cells in a range.

- COUNTBLANK function gives the count of blank cells in a range.           

- COUNTIF function returns the count of values by checking a given condition.



Using data analytics is eminent in varying industries and companies to help organizations in decision-making and data success. Implement routine study of the data analyst interview questions and answers and it is easy to grasp as well as cover most of the important topics and relatable data analytics interview questions.

As previously discussed with the frequent data analyst job interview questions, one can now prepare and visualize types of data analytics interview questions.

To explore certification programs in the Data Science field, chat with our experts, and find the certification that fits your career requirements.


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