Technology has really changed the entire world. On a day-to-day basis, we live in a completely digital world where life without technological gadgets is completely impossible. When we take a look around, this life is dependent on tech usage, and the growth of cybercrime takes place as well.
Cybercrime is basically performing criminal activities with the help of a computer and a network. The victims of cybercrime can either be an individual, an organization, or factors of national interest.
Cybersecurity is considered the only defense mechanism adopted by organizations to protect against cyberattacks. Cybersecurity professionals are in high demand, as cybersecurity is important for every organization.
A lot of professionals have shown interest in working as cybersecurity professionals. Along with certification, a candidate must be ready to tackle any cybersecurity interview questions and answers during the interview rounds.
Cybersecurity interview questions and answers can be tricky, but they're less difficult if you see yourself as a technology enthusiast.
Our curated lists of cybersecurity interview questions and answers allowed the professional to win over the interview round of organizations as a cybersecurity professionals. Let’s get started!
Cover the frequent cybersecurity interview questions and answers for freshers or professional cybersecurity certification applicants.
1) What do you mean by "cybersecurity"?
Cybersecurity can be considered a defense mechanism that is used by a lot of people all around the world against cybercrime. It protects the hardware, software, data, and information present in the device from potential cybercriminals.
It is considered one of the most important sectors in an organization as it protects all the organization's data and information.
Apart from preventing the data from getting stolen, it protects the network used by the organization. A lot of individuals use cybersecurity information.
2) What are the different components or elements of cybersecurity?
Cybersecurity is so complex that there are many components that makeup cybersecurity as a whole.
The major components of cybersecurity include cybersecurity information security, network security, operational security, application security, end-user education, and continuity planning for the business.
All the different components of cybersecurity, or different cybersecurity elements, help in the overall protection of the data and Information Company. They look at the different sectors to fulfill the overall requirement.
3) Mention a few advantages of cybersecurity.
Organizations that do not have a proper cybersecurity system have always had many troubles when it comes to keeping their data safe. Having a well-developed system is very important for the overall competitive growth of the organization.
It provides your organization with many benefits listed below, for which it is given a lot of importance.
4) What do you mean by cryptography?
Cryptography is actually in accord with the original message it transforms into. This ensures that all the data and information sent in the message are limited to the sender and the receiver.
When we talk about the network, we see that it is a huge place. There are many users, broadcasters, and a lot of third parties as well.
Third parties, which are known as adversaries, are often related to stealing sensitive messages sent from the user to the receiver.
This is one of the most dangerous forms of cybercrime, as it steals all the sensitive messages that are being sent. The only way information can be protected from these adversaries is by using a technique known as cryptography.
5) How will we differentiate between IDS and IPS?
IDS is the acronym for Intrusion Detection Systems, and IPS is the acronym for Intrusion Prevention System. IDS and IPS both have a very important role in the world of cybersecurity.
The basic difference between IDS and IPS is that IDS is actually a monitoring system, whereas IPS is actually a controlling system.
IDS has no relation to the alteration of network packets. In contrast, IPS has a great relationship with creating restrictions in the delivery of packets about the content stored in the package.
6) What do you mean by the CIA?
CIA is the action that is used for confidentiality, integrity, and availability. It is actually a very popular model, whose primary purpose was to help develop security policies.
The three components that built up the CIA as one of the most fundamental pillars of cybersecurity is:
Let us discuss cybersecurity interview questions and answers at an intermediate level.
7) What do you mean by a firewall?
A firewall is actually a defence system that is used in cybersecurity. But for sure, a firewall is not as simple as it sounds. The primary work of a firewall is to protect the network, which is used by the organization.
The design of fireworks is done in a specific way to completely specified to protect the network. A firewall is actually set into the boundary of a network.
The system helps monitor all the network traffic and helps maintain all the users who are using the network.
A firewall is very beneficial to protect the organisation against any potential malware attacks. Projecting the network is very important, as all the specific data is being transferred through the network only.
As a firewall prevents content filtering and remote access, it is considered an ideal design to protect the network.
8) What do you mean by a traceroute?
A tool designed to help provide the packets with the rightful packet path is known as a traceroute. Traceroute helps provide checkpoints for the packet, which ensures all the points through which the packet should be passed.
The usage of a traceroute is only seen when a packet seems not to reach its destination. Then, check the entire passage to identify connection breakage to prevent the failure of delivery of the package.
We know that when a network or data is transferred, it is usually segmented. All the segment data is then formed into packets that contain different segments of different data.
Traceroute is very beneficial for many organizations, as it ensures proper connectivity of all the different points through which the packet should be passed for transmitting data.
9) What are the differences between HIDS and NIDS?
The primary difference between HIDS and NIDS is based on usage and functionality. HIDS is used for host-based intrusion detection systems. This is a system that helps in the detection of different intrusions.
HIDS is extremely beneficial and functional in monitoring the computing systems and the network packets to help identify a host-based intrusion. NIDS, on the other hand, is the acronym used for network intrusion detection systems.
The NIDS is a very functional part of the organization as it helps identify loopholes where hackers are performing any form of activity.
The primary goal of a network intrusion detection system is to identify different actions that are currently happening over the network and unauthorized activities that are functional in the network.
10) What is the meaning of SSL?
SSL is used for the Secure Sockets Layer. The Secure Socket Locker creates encrypted connections, which are established between the web server and the web browser.
It helps in the proper reflection of data and information transmitted from the network in a very precise way. The secure sockets are beneficial, as they also help protect all the data and information when having any online transactions.
So, it also helps create a safe atmosphere for your monetary transactions over the internet without any of the data being stolen.
Monetary safety is a very important feature as it protects all the amounts stored in the user's bank, which is connected to the devices.
It's a very beneficial feature of cybersecurity, as that helps the property development of monetary sanctions in a very safe and secure way.
11) What is the basic meaning of "data leakage"?
It might sound very simple, but data leakage is actually the theft of data information through unauthorised sources. A form of cybercrime that is completely related to accepting data and information from the user's device in a very authorised manner.
This is done by attaching malware, where the cybercriminal gains complete access to the user's device and steals all the sensitive data and information. Cybercriminals mostly look forward to weak loopholes on the internet or the network through which they can gain access.
Data leakage is one of the biggest concerns for many users, as it can pose a great threat to both personal and professional lives. Data leakage can happen through email, optical media, and a lot more.
12) What do you mean by "brute force attack," and how can it be prevented?
Every user of the internet has faced a little trouble dealing with the passport at some point in time. The trial-and-error method, which helps find the right password over a particular internet portal, is called a brute force attack.
There are two types of brute force attacks that are used over the internet:
- Firstly, when the user starts entering multiple passwords for their own account to gain access back after forgetting the password.
- The second situation is where cybercriminals continuously collect potential passwords. The second equation is what is considered cybercrime. The hackers use a different combination of alphabets and letters to finally give the right password.
There are many cases in which the user has actually saved their passwords, through which brute force attacks automatically generate or create login passwords for the user. This brute force attack feature is very dysfunctional and can be very dangerous for the user, as the cybercriminal can misuse the data and information from the internet portal.
Brute force attacks can also be prevented. It can be done in three major ways. The first one is by creating a password length. Password length is a very important feature that was created by internet portals to increase the safety of data.
The length of the password plays a very crucial role as it increases the difficulty of getting the password, which the criminal can't guess through the trial and error method. The next episode involves increasing the complexity of the password.
This is done by involving the alphabet, symbols, and letters at the same time. This makes it very difficult for cybercriminals to gain access. The most important feature of a lot of internet bottles to prevent brute force attacks is setting up limitations on login failures.
13) What do you mean by "port scanning"?
Every specific host has a lot of open ports and services that are available over the portal. Port scanning is the only way to identify open ports and services on a specific host. This helps in identifying these places over the specific host.
A lot of hackers actually use port scanning to identify all the information they need to perform criminal activities.
Port scanning can be considered constructive and destructive activities at the same time, as hackers can misuse this technique to identify information for the performance of malicious activities.
Let us discuss advanced cybersecurity interview questions and answers:
14) What are the different layers that are used in the OSI model?
OSI is used for open-system interconnection modeling. The primary function of this model is to standardise different modes of communication across telecommunication devices.
It is very beneficial to enhance the mode of communication through these telecommunication devices with the proper restrictions over the usage of networking.
The OSI model is made up of several layers, which help in the fundamental construction of this model.
There are a total of seven layers in the OSI model: the physical layer, the data link layer, the network layer, the transport layer, the session layer, the presentation layer, and the application layer.
The different layers of this model solve different issues and problems that are related to the OSI model.
15) What do you mean by "VPN," and what is its usage?
VPN stands for "Virtual Private Network. In the simplest terms, we can call VPN a safe network connection method. VPN is a complex concept when it comes to cybersecurity.
The VPN helps in establishing network connections, which then create encrypted and safe connections with the intermediate telecommunication devices and the network.
Using a VPN is a very constructive way to protect data from getting stolen by any cybercriminal.
VPN is considered to be very beneficial for a lot of users, as there are many uses for VPN. VPN is very beneficial when it comes to building up a business network when a person is traveling.
This allows business professionals to access the networking portal even when their current location is continuously changing.
When using a VPN, it does not provide any browsing activity to the network provider, which is used by the user. This makes the browsing activity of the user completely safe and secure.
16) What do you mean by "white hat" hackers?
White hat hackers are ethical hackers who have permission to hack a service network to check the security or stability of the network.
As we associated, hacking with cybercriminal activity, the cybercriminal gains access to the victim's device to steal all the sensitive data and information. But it's not just limited to cybercrime.
These professionals have ethical standards that they have to follow while hacking a particular network. The requirement for white hat hackers is very high in an organization, as they have a crucial role in strengthening the networking system of the company. There are also known factors that help these activities stand out in the network with the use of ethical standards.
17) Who are black hat hackers?
The term black hat hackers refer to professionals who have amazing knowledge about how to breach network security. Black hat hackers are probably professionals to do not fall under the category of ethical hackers, as their primary function is to damage the network.
They have amazing knowledge about the generation of malware, which has the potential to affect the network. These hackers identified the weak loopholes in the network, which they used to steal all the sensitive data and information from the user's device for their own benefit.
Hackers are extremely knowledgeable and know how to break into a secure network without much of an issue.
18) How can I use another reset to the password-protected BIOS configuration?
Resetting the BIOS password is very easy, and any user can usually do it. The first thing that the user has to do to change the BIOS password is to remove the CMOS battery.
When the user removes the CMOS battery, it is very easy for the user to actually change the BIOS password.
The next method by which the user can change the BIOS password is by utilising the software. The next way to change the BIOS password is by using a motherboard jumper.
The last way through which a BIOS password can be changed is by utilizing MS-DOS. These are the four primary methods by which a user can easily change the BIOS password configuration.
19) What is Hacking?
Hacking is a technique in which a third party or unauthorized user gains complete access to a particular network. The hacker has the potential to intrude into the network and steal sensitive data and information from the victim's device.
The hacker identifies the weak loopholes in the network. After identification of the loopholes, the hacker tries to connect the device. The hacker steals all the sensitive data stored in the device and uses it for his own benefit.
The biggest drawback of hacking is that the victim might have no idea that his information is constantly stolen.
The reason why hacking is so common is that the number of hackers in the world is continuously increasing. The number of factors has rapidly increased in the last decade as organisations that use information technology have also increased.
20) What are the different cyberattacks that can affect an organization?
The number of cybercriminals in the world has rapidly increased. These online criminals have adapted to different cybercrime activities, which can damage an organisation in different ways.
The cybercriminal activities that can hamper the growth of the organisation are malware attacks, phishing, password attacks, hacking, rogue software, and a lot more.
These are the top 20 cybersecurity questions that are very important for a professional to understand. The set of questions is the result of a lot of research on the interview questions of different organisations in the field of cybersecurity.
All the questions that come up in an interview are made to test the knowledge and skills the professional has in this field of work.
Get insights with scenario-based cybersecurity interview questions and answers:
21) How should you perform an initial risk assessment?
There are two processes for performing those tasks: qualitative and quantitative methods.
Qualitative does not assign dollar values to components of the risk analysis. Whereas, a quantitative process is done in three ways:
- Estimate Potential Losses - Single Loss Expectancy (SLE) = Asset Value X Exposure Factor
- Take a threat analysis
- Determine annual loss expectancy (ALE) - ALE = single loss expectancy (SLE) x annual rate of occurrence (ARO)
22) An electronic e-greeting card was forwarded to your work email. To view the card, you need to click on the attachment. How do we deal?
It is best to delete the message. It contains big risks, such as:
- Virus and malicious harmful programs may contain in the attachments.
- Just clicking on a malicious link hampers the system.
- Possibility of fake email addresses.
- Can be hoaxes.
- Acing Cybersecurity Career
- Professionals can easily crack related interviews with remarkable ease.
A planned routine and smartly preparing the latest cybersecurity interview questions and answers for experienced professionals and freshers is a win. Professionals or first-timers can easily crack related interviews with any cybersecurity interview questions and answers.
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