Cybersecurity Fundamentals Explained

By Syed Irfan

Last updated on Oct 9 2020

Cybersecurity Fundamentals Explained

Introduction to fundamentals of Cyber Security


The use of the internet by businesses gave rise to mobile banking, social networking, online shopping, and so on. It has offered us a big list of benefits; however, it has some drawbacks as well. Since it exposes our data to the internet, it increases the threat of cybercrimes. Therefore, it is important to protect yourself and your company against cyber threats. So, it is vital to understand cyber security fundamentals clearly. You will learn about the cyber security fundamentals in this article.


History of Cyberthreats Explained

The rise of cybersecurity took place because of the growth of computer viruses. The creeper is the original name of the computer worm created by Robert Thomas in the 1970s. It infected the computer by transferring from one system to another. The first antivirus program is known as the reaper; it made it possible to detect and delete creeper completely from the computers.

Since that time on, the growth of the viruses is tough to control. Therefore, you must know about cybersecurity fundamentals to protect the systems in a better manner.


Introduction to Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity can keep the data, computers, and networks safe. It is a set of processes, methods, and practices that guarantee the safety of the data. It is vital to keep the data safe from any unknown source. In other words, the criminals are normally after the valuable data of a company.


The best cybersecurity measures can minimize the risk of cyber threats and keep the company safe. Also, it helps to keep the people safe from the loss of any personal data.


Best Cybersecurity Certification by (ISC)2:

CISA certification training to clear CISA exam – Get CISA certified

CISSP Certification Online Training


 The three main terms of cybersecurity measures are processes, technology, and people. It is the best approach that helps the company to protect itself from any complex or any dangerous attacks and also usual internal risks. For instance, it includes the mistakes by the humans and unintentional breaches.

The development of technology has also raised the difficulty level of the attacks. So, it is really important to learn more about cybersecurity and to understand cyber security fundamentals. 


Various aspects of Cyber Security 


You need to understand the security setup included in a network or system. This provides you more information about cyber security fundamentals. Hackers try to acquire data illegally from a computer system, network, or website by making use of hacks. Hackers create special illegal programs and use these programs to gain unauthorized access to a system. So, understanding these security threats is important.


These security threats are as given below:

  • Vulnerability: It is a weak element present in the security system. It is also referred to as a bug or flaw and, thus, is used to manipulate information. This leads to a crack in the security system.
  • Cyber Threat: It is the presence of a soft spot in the security of the network. Mainly, the hacker gains information about it and tries to access the network. An attacker uses these points as gateways. This leads to information-stealing or encryption of files, and thus criminals can demand money for decryption.
  • Social Engineering: It is one of the common threats present in a network or computer system. This kind of attack targets the company as well as an individual. A hacker tries to steal sensitive information from the victim. Later, hackers manipulate the data and cause trouble for the victim.
  • Zero-Day Attack: This is another common form of a threat nowadays. These flaws are new and are only known to the software developers. Thus, such flaws become a threat to the security of the system due to the late release of the official patch or fix. Thus, cybercriminals exploit these flaws to leak information.


So, cyber security fundamentals are useful for both beginners and professionals to level up their careers. It helps in creating a stronger base.


Explore CompTIA Certifications:

CompTIA A+ Certification Training from Industry Experts

Get CompTIA Security+ Training and Earn the Certification

CompTIA CASP+ Certification Training – online, live online and classroom 


Importance of Cybersecurity 

The reasons for the increasing importance of cybersecurity in the modern world are:

  • The rate of cyber threats is growing rapidly over the years. The cybercrime is currently over $400 billion, and it increased by $150 billion within two years.
  • These threats are always very costly for companies to handle. Sometimes, the companies face both financial damage and data loss, which adds to the damage to the company’s reputation.
  • Nowadays, these attacks are becoming very harmful to companies. The cybercriminals use highly complicated software. Therefore, it has become hard to examine this software.
  • There are many regulations that are making sure that the companies take care of their personal data.


So, these reasons have resulted in the need for cybersecurity. It is important for companies. The main goal now is to build the proper plans that reduce the damage caused by these attacks. But if you want to build a proper plan, you have to get a clear idea of the cyber security fundamentals. 


Cyber Security Fundamentals


You must learn the cybersecurity fundamentals to get a deeper understanding of the basic concepts. You must know about these basics of security before starting your journey in this field.

  • Trojan 

Trojan can attack financial companies easily. They can break through any antivirus systems without getting noticed. They are very harmful to any financial company as they can steal financial information at banks, insurance companies, and so on. It is hard to protect the data against this software.

  • Virus

This is the most basic term of cybersecurity. It is a harmful software that damages the system and the documents. This program multiplies in number and spreads through infected files. It does not need a system that is infected already. 

  • Worms


 This program does not cause any harm, but it multiplies on its own. It is also harmful because it can multiply continuously. So, it eventually takes up more than half of the space on the hard disk. The networks and systems gradually slow down because of this. It is a very confusing concept, so; you should go through the cyber security fundamentals thoroughly.

  • Spyware

Attackers use this software to spy on a targeted system or network. If the attacker is successful at injecting the spyware, then monitoring every activity becomes easy for the attacker. The attacker then copies the original activity of the purchase that you do on a daily basis to steal any important data.

  • Scareware

It is a program that is created to scare any person and make them buy an anti-virus. After it is installed, they get a number of messages on the screen. These messages read that your system is undergoing an attack and makes them go into a panic mode. So, it then sends them to a fake website to buy an anti-virus.

  • Keylogger

If you download this program, it logs all the system’s keystrokes. Then the attacking systems get all of these data. The attacker gets data like passwords, user ids, and so on.

  • Phishing

Phishing attacks are very common in the cyberspace. In this attack, it sends the target to a false website to try and take the confidential data like the login information or the passwords. The attackers use this type of attack to get the data related to the networks and to steal the secret data.

  • DDoS

Distributed Denial of Service is an attack used by the attacker to send a large number of requests to the server, network, or website. These requests normally fill up the servers and networks so that it breaks down. So, attackers use this simple software to deal with damage to the company. 

  • SQL Injection

The attackers use this harmful software to inject to a server for stealing data. The attacker uses it to get important data. Then he can easily alter and steal valuable information.

So, you can choose to read more about cyber security fundamentals to get detailed knowledge related to these security programs.


Difference between Threat, Vulnerability, and Risk


Threat: The thing that can damage a system is called a threat. For instance, a phishing attack is the most common type of threat.

Vulnerability: This is the weakness that is normally present in a system. It provides an entry point for these threats and so it does a higher amount of damage. For instance, SQL injection and cross-site scripting.

Risk: It is the height of the damage that a company might suffer if there is a presence of a mixture of threats and weakness in a system.

Therefore, these are some of the basics that you should know about. If you go through the cyber security fundamentals in-depth, you will get all the necessary skills.


Cyber Security Concepts


You will know more about the types of tools that are used to protect the company against harm by going through cyber security fundamentals. You will learn more about beginner level tools.

Botnet: The set of devices that are linked together through an internet connection is known as a botnet. It includes PCs, servers, or mobile phones. These all can be infected by harmful software that leads to the loss of data.

Firewall: Cyber security fundamentals include a deeper explanation of Firewalls that is important for beginners. The traffic present in cyberspace or network is large in number. So, to improve the security of the network, the traffic should be managed and monitored. It is used to provide more safety.


Final Words


So, if you wish to grow your career in the cybersecurity field, then you must start with the cyber security fundamentals. This way, you will learn all the important details related to it. 


Explore Online cybersecurity certification courses from Sprintzeal


To get full details about cybersecurity certification training, chat with our course expert


Suggested Read - Best Cyber Security Certifications in 2020

About the Author

Sprintzeal   Syed Irfan

Irfan is a technical content writer in the education niche with vast experience in creating content for certifications and training programs. He creates engaging, easy-to-understand, and valuable content for both beginners and professionals aspiring to enhance their careers. 

Recommended Courses

Recommended Resources

Quality Assurance vs Quality Control

Quality Assurance vs Quality Control


Project Initiation Phase - Importance and Roles Involved

Project Initiation Phase - Importance and Roles Involved


Agile Methodology Explained in Detail

Agile Methodology Explained in Detail