Financial Risk and Its Types

By Syed Irfan

Last updated on Feb 14 2022

Financial Risk and Its Types

Understanding Financial Risk and Its Types

Before investing time in methods to assess and reduce risk it is essential for the analyst to be aware of what the financial risks can be and what their consequences are. Risk to the financial market can be described as the chance of experiencing a negative and unexpected outcome due to market fluctuations.

These risks may result from an inadequate flow of cash in flow management or lower than expected revenue-related risks.


They may be triggered by many reasons:

  • Poor management.
  • A high amount of debt.
  • Changes in exchanges or interest rates.
  • Investments or market transactions that have high levels of risk.
  • Insufficient information to make a decision.


Financial Risk management is among the main concerns of any company across all fields and geographical regions. This is why the exam called FRM Financial Risk Manager, also called FRM Test, is getting a lot of attention from experts in the field of finance around the world. FRM is the highest qualification for professionals in risk management around the world. Financial Risk in project management is again the foundational concept of FRM Level 1 examination. Before gaining a thorough understanding of the strategies to manage risk and the management of risk, it is crucial to understand the meaning of risk and also what the different types of risk are. Let's look at different types of risks in this article.


Risk and Types of Financial Risks:

Risk can be defined as the chance of having an unanticipated or negative result. Any act or event that results in loss of any kind could be considered to be a risk. There are various types of risks that a business could face and needs to be able to overcome. In general, risks can be classified into three categories: Corporate Risk, Non-Business Risk as well as Financial Risk.


Corporate Risk 

These types of risks are incurred by businesses themselves to increase profits and shareholder value. For instance, businesses take on high-cost risk in marketing to promote new products in order to increase sales.


Non-Business Risk

 This type of risk isn’t under the supervision of businesses. The risks that result from economic or political instability can be classified as non-business risks.


The Financial Risk 

As the name implies can be defined as that which could cause the possibility of a financial loss for companies. The majority of it is from volatility or losses within the financial markets caused by fluctuations in prices for stocks and currencies, interest rates, currency exchange rates and much more.

The types of risks that financial institutions face

Risk of financial loss is among the risk types that are of high priority for all businesses. Risks to financial assets are through market movements and these can be caused by many elements, in this sense, the risk of financial loss is classified into various kinds, including Market Risk, Credit risk Liquidity Risk, Operational Risk as well as Legal Risk. This could take various forms as for examples a funding risk in project management.


Market Risk:

This type of risk arises due to fluctuations in the price of financial Instruments. Risks associated with market transactions are classified as Non-Directional Risk and Directional RiskThe risk of direction is due to fluctuations in the prices of stocks, interest rates and many others. Non-Directional risk in contrast could be a result of volatility risk.

Risks to the market are generally resulting from economic uncertainties that can affect overall performance for all businesses but not only one. Changes in the prices of Liabilities, assets and derivatives are among these risk sources.

For instance, this is the danger to which an importer paying for their products in dollars, and later selling that item in local currency could be exposed. In the event of devaluation this company could incur loss that will stop it from meeting their financial commitments.

This is the same for innovation and market changes. A good example is the commercial industry. Companies that have been able to adapt to the new market environment and sell their goods online have seen an increase in revenues. However, those who have not embraced these changes, exhibit low levels of competitiveness.

There are different hotspots for market hazard which incorporate large scale factors, for example, changes in loan fees, unfamiliar exchange strategy, modern result pointers, political unrest, catastrophic events and psychological oppressor assaults. Methodical or market hazard will in general impact wide market conduct. Deliberate danger can be separated from unsystematic danger, which is one of a kind to a particular area or industry or organization


Liquidity Risk

This kind of risk is borne because of the inability to perform transactions. Liquidity risk is classified as Risk of Asset Liquidity as well as Credit Liquidity Risk. The risk of asset liquidity arises because of insufficient buyers or insufficient sellers to meet, buy and sell orders, respectively.

Risk management for financial risk should take into account the liquidity of a business, since every company must ensure it has enough cash flow to cover its debts. In the absence of this, it could affect investor confidence.

The risk of liquidity is essentially the risk that It is a possibility that a business may not be able to meet its obligations. One possible cause of this is inadequate control of cash flows.

A company may have substantial equity, but at the same time it faces a significant potential for liquidity risk. This is due to the fact that it is unable to convert these assets into cash to pay for its short-term costs.

Bonds or real estate such as bonds are both assets that take some time to turn into cash. That is why each business must determine if they have assets in place to repay short-term commitments.

Guarantee on accounting report acquires an ideal net revenue edge, without presenting the foundation to unjustifiable dangers from the loan cost unpredictability.

Plan and design a monetary record with an appropriate blend of resources and liabilities, to upgrade the danger/return profile of the foundation going ahead.

Evaluate its capacity to meet its income and guarantee needs (under both ordinary and focused on conditions) without contrarily affecting everyday tasks or its in general monetary position.

Moderate that danger by creating procedures and making fitting moves intended to guarantee that important assets and insurance are accessible when required.


Operational Risk

This type of risk can arise due to operational issues like poor management or technical issues. Operational risk can be divided in two categories: the categories of Fraud Risk or Model Risk. Fraud risk can be attributed to the absence of control and Model risk is caused by the wrong application of the model.

There are a variety of operational risks. These risks are caused by insufficient internal control within the organization technology, failures in management, mismanagement, human error, or insufficient training for employees.

In the end, this risk usually results in an economic loss for the business.

Operations are among the risks that are difficult to quantify independently. In order to be able calculate the risk accurately the business must have created a log of its history which includes failures that are of this kind and identified the possibility of a connection between the two.

The risks are prevented if a particular risk is deemed to have the potential to create additional risk. A broken down machine, for instance does not just mean the cost of repairing it. It also leads to losses in production delays, which could cause delays in the delivery of goods and can even impact the company's image.

Large companies like Intel as well as Facebook have experienced massive economic losses due to the fact that they were unable to prepare for operational risks.

The same thing has been reported to some of the biggest banks, such as Riggs Bank, Barings Bank or Credit Lyonnais in France.

 At the end of the day the kinds of financial risks in business are different for every company based on the kind of business they engage in. But, it is crucial to determine the risk and analyze their effects.


Legal Risk:

This is one of the commonly occurring types of risk in project finance. It comes out of legal limitations, like lawsuits. When a business has to deal with financial losses as a result of legal processes, it's a legal risk.

Legal risks relate to damages or loss that is incurred to an organization due to its inability to act in accordance with the laws applicable to business. They can arise at any point in the business process.

There could be errors because of a misunderstood understanding of law and due to documents, that must be handed over to the authority, that is, different types of risks like the risk of compliance or regulatory operational risk, etc. can contribute to the concept of "legal risk". The image of an organization is dependent on these risks because they can cause an enormous loss.

They could result in the collapse of a business as well. It is important to understand what legal risks are and how to avoid them.


Identifying legal risks

The association's danger structure will normally distinguish and focus on those dangers that would affect the capacity of the associations to complete its capacities in some material regard and bring about monetary or reputational hurt. What might be less clear is the thing that really comprises a legitimate danger

This is the place where the counsel can assume a significant part in assisting the association with understanding the scope of legal risks and their temperament.

To do this successfully, one unmistakably needs a decent comprehension of the association and its tasks. A portion of these dangers will be firmly connected to craft by Law, for example, according to agreements, and agreement of the board and questions, for which the counsel may as of now be responsible.


Credit Risk:


This kind of risk occurs when an individual fails to meet the obligations they have to their counter partners. Credit risk is classified as sovereign Risk as well as Settlement Risk. 

Sovereign risk typically arises due to the difficulty of forex policies. Settlement risk, on the other hand, is when one party makes the amount but the opposite party is unable to fulfill the obligation.

In the management of project financial risk, credit risk is crucial. This risk is an eventuality that could mean that the loan provider will not pay loan payments on time or be able to receive the loan late.

At the point when moneylenders offer home loans, MasterCard’s, or some other kind of credit, there could be a danger that the borrower probably won't reimburse the advance. Likewise, assuming an organization stretches out credit to a client, there could be a danger that the client probably won't pay their solicitations. Credit hazard likewise addresses the danger that a bond guarantor might neglect to make an installment when mentioned, or an insurance agency cannot pay a case

Credit hazards are distinguished depending on the borrower's general probability to reimburse an advance as indicated by the underlying terms. Moneylenders check out the five Cs to evaluate credit hazard - financial record, ability to reimburse, the advance's conditions, capital, and related insurance

 Credit risk can be the method of assessing the debtor's ability to meet its obligations to pay.


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Two kinds are credit-risk: wholesale as well as wholesale.

The first is the danger associated with the financing of people and small businesses, either via cards, mortgages, or any other type of credit. Wholesale credit, on the other hand, emerges from the organization's own ventures either as deals of monetary resources consolidations, acquisitions, or consolidations of firms.

The circumstance of subprime contracts in the United States, which prompted the downturn in 2008, outlines the manner in which credit hazard shows itself when it isn't taken care of accurately. Subprime mortgages were risky, loans with high-interest rates for those who were in a jobless state or who did not have a steady income.

Banks started to expand the coverage to include Subprime mortgage applicants to increase their income. But, as the mortgage applicants were unable to pay the mortgage, the amount of the loans increased. This led to the bankruptcies of a number of banks across the United States and compromised the reputation of other banks such as JP Morgan Chase



In this ever-growing and ever-evolving world of modern corporates, it is absolutely essential to stay updated and relevant. Only by doing so can one be an integral part of and contribute to the growth of the company. Gaining an understanding of financial risk analysis and using it to make a financial risk assessment can help the company mitigate risks by having action plans in place. It would be prudent to consider looking at examples of financial risks in project management in order to gain a more practical understanding of the shapes and forms these risks can take.

Taking the aid of a reputed certification platform like Sprintzeal in understanding market risk in project management would be extremely beneficial. A reputed platform for accreditation, like Sprintzeal, could help you attain the qualification of FRM. This would be extremely beneficial to enhance your portfolio and skillsets and would help the company by helping them mitigate risks. After all risk analysis in project management has become a crucial part of the whole project planning. It has become crucial to have an understanding of things like firm risk and market risk in project management, in order to stay relevant in mitigating risks for the company. Therefore it would be prudent to take the help of an organization like Sprintzeal and learn more today.

To get details about the best project management certifications, chat with a course expert.



About the Author

Sprintzeal   Syed Irfan

Irfan is a technical content writer in the education niche with vast experience in creating content for certifications and training programs. He creates engaging, easy-to-understand, and valuable content for both beginners and professionals aspiring to enhance their careers. 

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